### LtoJ Research

#### Because of John Hattie’s meta-analyses research published in Visible Learning, the effect size of the LtoJ® process can be researched for any classroom.

In July, 2016 at Corwin’s Visible Learning Conference Doug Fisher stated in his keynote that effect size can be calculated for any classroom. Then John Hattie told me that all of the information needed to calculate effect size was included in every LtoJ® scatter diagram.

One of the major contributions from Hattie is connecting effect size to a year’s learning in a year’s time. The number is d = 0.40, which is a rather meaningless number by itself. Hattie stated that the average effect of almost any influence upon student learning was d = 0.40. Thus this d = 0.40 represents the average learning in a year. Any researched strategy with an effect size lower is to be considered less effective and any strategy with an effect size higher than d = 0.40 is considered to have produced more than the average learning for a school year.

Hattie placed his research of 138 effects on learning on a graphic that looks like a protractor. Very few influences have a negative effect (retention is one that does), but many, many influences do not result is a year’s learning in a year’s time.

Results: In a study of 59 classrooms with 1312 students and 7872 assessments the LtoJ® process developed by Corwin author/consultant Lee Jenkins has achieved an effect size of 2.69.

Background:John Hattie in his Visible Learning research documented from thousands of studies of influences upon student learning an average effect size of 0.40. This average represents a year’s learning in a year’s time. The first large scale documentation of the LtoJ® process is over six times the average year’s learning.

Who was assessed?

The assessed students are from the states of Washington, Arizona, and Nebraska. All are from public schools, grades 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The data is from academic vocabulary, spelling, math fluency, math standards, science, geography, history, reading, literary terms, and Spanish. Data forthcoming from 2016-17 will add schools from Kentucky, Illinois, Oregon, California, and Oklahoma plus include every grade level.

*Above is a picture of Angela Willnerd, grade 1 teacher in Fremont, Nebraska. She is explaining effect size to her students at the end of third quarter. In her left hand are 4 unifix cubes. They represent the 0.40 average effect size from John Hattie’s research of 250 influences upon learning. In her right hand are 19 cubes. These represent an effect size of 1.9 at the end of third quarter in spelling. Her students are performing at almost 5 times the average with a full quarter of school left. Angela utilizes LtoJ® for her spelling program. There is no weekly quiz to cram; the Friday assessment is 12 words randomly selected from the 150 for the year. Thus the 1.9 represents words in long-term memory. You can watch her spelling in action here.*

#### Why Such Amazing Results?

John Hattie has documented several influences that, by themselves, double or triple learning. The LtoJ® process is built upon 9 of Hattie’s most powerful, researched influences. All 9 are woven together into one unique process for any subject and any grade level, K-12. The 9 Visible Learning influences in LtoJ® are:

- Spaced v. Massed Assessment: Most assessments are in the form of chapter tests – content massed together into one chapter on a single topic. The LtoJ® process spreads the assessment out over the full year, at a minimum, and often over several years.
- Collective Teacher Efficacy: Once teachers experience the joy of LtoJ® and then learn the effect size for all of their efforts, they never go back because they know they can create the same great results year after year no matter who the new students are. Further, because effect sizes can be averaged whole departments of schools can easily see how well they have done together.
- Assessment Capable Students: The students assessed in these 311 classrooms know what they are to learn, what they have learned thus far, how the whole class is doing, and what needs to be learned.
- Formative Evaluation: The assessments are not graded, but are graphed for individuals, classes, grade levels, departments, and whole schools.
- Acceleration: Students know from week one of the school year the requirements for acceleration and work diligently to achieve the right to have harder work.
- Classroom Management: Teachers report intense effort by students to accomplish more than ever before. This intrinsic motivation is displayed as great classroom management.
- Feedback: The LtoJ® process is feedback from students to teachers. It continually answers the question, “Are we on track to meet end-of-the-year standards?”
- Teacher Clarity: Students learn the first week of school, in great detail, what they will learn for the year. They know precisely what has been taught and what is yet to be taught.
- Teacher/Student Relationships: Teacher report how the LtoJ® process improves relationships because the classroom becomes a team with the teacher as the coach.